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A Calendar of Festivals and Events in the East Cork Region
Attractions - Heritage Sites
Youghal Heritage Town
Youghal Heritage Town

- Green's Dock
The docks area of Youghal was a very different landscape prior to the 18th Century. During the early part of the 18th Century ever-increasing trade meant it was necessary for the town to expand beyond the limits of the Town Walls. This work accelerated after 1769 when Parliament granted £1,200 towards the cost of clearing Youghal's approach channels and expanding the docks. Areas of riverbank outside the town wall were progressively enclosed and infilled by merchants such as Perry, Salter, Mannix and Grubb. Salters Quay was constructed in 1716. Thomas and William Green further reclaimed this area in 1782 to create Grattan Street. Due to growth in the corn trade between 1750 and 1820, Youghal had the third highest revenue receipts in the country by 1761. Stores and warehouses for corn were built on the newly extended quays. By the close of the 18th Century, Catherine Street, Harvey‚€ôs Dock and Greens Quay had been created.

- Benedictine Priory of St. Johns
The present building at 56 North Main Street was identified as the site of the Benedictine Priory of St. Johns. The Benedictine Order had been established in Ireland by the 12th Century. The Benedictine Priory of St. John‚s was said to be founded as a minor house to the Benedictine Priory in Waterford. This building has undergone extensive alterations; however, some of the original features of the Priory of St. John‚s do remain. A pointed-arch sandstone doorway with molded surrounds survives on the ground floor of the present building. On the first floor is a chamfered ogee-headed window with hood moldings. The pointed-arch doorway provides access to a corridor, which contains a piscina (a water drain connected to a stone bowl), and lintel led ambry (wall recess). A second doorway at the end of the corridor gives access to a dwelling house which has a limestone water font in its garden.
- The Magazine
According to historical sources, an urban tower house known as the Magazine was situated on the front of the property now located at 54 North Main Street. A woodcut produced in 1850 depicts the east and south elevation of the tower house as a rectangular four storied structure. The front elevation of the first, second and third floors of the structure show three windows. Three lancet windows in the north east corner of the structure may have lit a spiral staircase. Archaeological excavations uncovered the foundations of the tower house and the presence of a late medieval fireplace in the north boundary wall to the rear of the property.
This building was supposedly occupied by Oliver Cromwell when he wintered his army in the town in 1649-1650. The Magazine was demolished in 1835 as part of construction works for the present building


- Market Place
This point marks the location of the linear Medieval Market Place, which can be seen in the noticeable widening of the street. Market Places were a key part of medieval towns, particularly from the 13th Century onwards, when there was a period of tremendous growth and economic expansion across Europe. A Market Cross is shown on the 16th Century Pacata Hibernia map in the centre of North Main Street, between Cross Lane and Church Street. It was the focal point of the market, where people gathered and public announcements were made. A Market House was situated a few meters south of the cross and controlled the market. It was built across the main street allowing access for traders through two arches. The old Market House was taken down in 1780 after an accident involving the Earl of Shannons carriage, when his horses were frightened by it and the coach was knocked to its side. The Earl requested that the corporation remove the obstruction and they immediately obliged.
9- The Red House
The Red House is an impressive example of Dutch domestic architecture that was transported to Youghal by its architect Leuventhen. It is of the baroque William and Mary style (1689-1702), free standing over a basement with a unifying, pedimented, large central breakfront and doorway. The roof is hipped, has two dormer windows and is decorated with finials and ridge tiles. It is built with imported red brick - the quality of local brick was not good enough at the time. It originally had two acres of outbuildings, gardens and kennels. The interior retains the original Memel pinewood panelling. The house was completed in 1703 for the Uniacke family, a merchant family who first came to Youghal in the 13th Century. In 1925 it was acquired for use as the Parochial House, retaining this function for several decades. It is rare to find this style of early 18th Century brick built townhouse surviving in Ireland.


- Tyntes Castle
Tyntes Castle is the only surviving example of several urban tower houses that were once to be found in Youghal. It is a four storey rectangular tower with a 19th Century extension to the east. The original doorway was beneath the box machicolation and was protected by it from above. The ground and first floor are vaulted and the tower contains a number of pointed loop windows. Recent works have seen the replacement of the roof and restoration of the battlements. This tower house is reputed to have been built by the Walshes in the 15th Century. During the Desmond Rebellion the Walshes lost possession of the tower house and the ownership was transferred to the Corporation. It was then leased indefinitely to Sir Robert Tynte, thus acquiring its present name. During the 19th Century the building was heavily altered during its conversion into a dry goods and grain store. Further information at www.tyntescastle.com

- Boyles Almshouses
Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, built this building, the oldest surviving almshouse in Ireland, in 1643. It was built with the promise to provide ‚€úFive pounds apiece for each of ye old decayed soldiers, the pledge was later extended to include their widows. He also endowed a school located to the side on Church Street. Four of the six almshouses are facing onto North Main Street while the remaining two are facing onto Church Street. The Almshouses have been described as being allmost convincingly Jacobean in their form of architecture. Four doorways with pointed arches are set in pairs on the ground floor. The Almshouses retained their original use until the 19th Century when they underwent some alterations. In recent years further alterations and modifications were made to the building which now functions as homes for senior citizens.



- St. Marys Collegiate Church
St. Marys church is built on the site of an earlier church destroyed by storm in 1192. It is cruciform in shape consisting of an aisled nave, north and south transepts, a chancel and tower. The nave is 13th Century in date and its original timber roof structure remains. The transepts are contemporary with the nave. A tower of 14th Century date is located in the angle between the nave and the north transept. The chancel is later, built in 1464.
St. Marys was founded under the patronage of Richard Benet and Ellice Barry; whose effigy is housed in the south transept or Boyle‚€ôs Chapel. Sir Richard Boyle reappointed the south transept as his memorial chapel in the 17th Century. The church was left almost in ruins following the Desmond Rebellion of 1579 and the chancel remained unroofed until 1852. The oldest known gravestone with an inscribed date is for 1632.

- Town Walls
The construction of Youghal town walls can be dated to approximately 1250 AD. The first record of the walls is a charter of 1275, granted by King Edward I, for their repair and extension. The earliest upstanding remains of the town wall are from the period of Anglo-Norman settlement and are found on the landward side of Youghal. The walled town consists of two elements, a main town and a base town. Early pictorial maps show the town wall as having 13 towers. Today the landward wall survives almost intact and runs for up to 1 km. Four towers remain along this part of the wall. In the 15th Century a need for a deeper shipping berths saw the quay area of the town moved southwards. To protect the new harbour an extension to the walled area, the base town, was created. The walls were heightened and repaired by Sir Richard Boyle in the 17th Century. The seaward wall is presently marked in 18th and 19th Century property boundaries.

- The College
Thomas Fitzgerald, Earl of Desmond, founded the College in 1464. Students were admitted to the College by 1465. The College was a successful enterprise, gaining international fame. A papal Bull of Pope Innocent VIII refers to the College as University of the City of Youghal". The College was seriously damaged during the Desmond Rebellion of 1579. In 1602 Sir Richard Boyle bought the College for £1500 from Sir Walter Raleigh, who acquired it following the death of Sir Thomas Norris its previous owner. Boyle rebuilt the College as his residence and it is here that his son Roger Boyle, the famous dramatist, was born. He added the five circular turrets that surround the College and walled the gardens in 1641. In 1782 major rebuilding and renovation was carried out to create the 18th Century building which remains today. The northern Gothic revival wing was built in 1862

Myrtle Grove
Myrtle Grove is a rare Irish example of an unfortified, late medieval Tudor style stone house. The building may be late 15th Century in date, making it contemporary with the nearby College and may have been built as a priests house. The house lies on substantial ground that straddles both sides of the Town Wall. The external appearance of the building has changed over time with 18th and 19th Century windows and doors; although the main building is original. Internally, an impressively carved early 17th Century chimneypiece and mantel survives. Much of the remainder of the interior is Georgian or later. Historically, the building of Myrtle Grove is attributed to Sir Thomas Norris. Its construction has also been accredited to Sir Walter Raleigh. It is at Myrtle Grove that a panicked servant reputedly dowsed Raleigh in water while he was smoking the first tobacco in Ireland.

- Clockgate
777 - The Clock Gate was built on the site of Trinity Castle, part of the town's fortifications. The old Trinity gate had separated the Base Town from the medieval town proper.
 the Clock Gate served the town as goal and public gallows until 1837.1787 - A new storey was added to the Clock Gate Tower to cater for the rising number of people arrested as rebels.
It was a grim building - prisoners were routinely tortured for information. Sometimes they were flogged and deported. Several members of the United Irishmen were publicly hanged from the windows. The Clock gate was a symbol of terror and tyranny for the countryside around
                                                   
- The Watergate
The town's Water Gate was built in the 13th century to provide access through the town walls to the docks. Also known as Cromwell's Arch, it was from here that Oliver Cromwell left Ireland in 1650, having overwintered in the town after his campaign in Ireland.
                                                   



 
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